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Fig. 1.  Vaccinia virus surface features.  (A) Electron micrograph of purified virus, whole mount, negative stain.  “Mulberry” (M) and “capsule” (C) forms are shown (Westwood et al., 1964).  (B) Electron micrograph of a purified virion, whole mount, negative stain (Wilton et al., 1995). (C) Freeze etch electron micrograph of a purified virion (Nermut, 1973).  (D) Deep etch electron micrograph of a purified virion (Heuser, 2005).  (E)  Atomic force micrograph of a purified virion (Malkin et al., 2003).  (E)  Cryoelectron micrograph of a whole mount preparation of purified virions (Griffiths et al., 2001).  Arrows denote the limits of the surface domain; arrowhead denotes the palisade layer

Griffiths, G., Wepf, R., Wendt, T., Locker, J. K., Cyrklaff, M., Roos, N., (2001). Structure and assembly of intracellular mature vaccinia virus: isolated- particle analysis. J.Virol. 75, 11034-11055.
Heuser, J., (2005). Deep-etch EM reveals that the early poxvirus envelope is a single membrane bilayer stabilized by a geodetic "honeycomb" surface coat. J.Cell Biol. 169, 269-283.
Malkin, A. J., McPherson, A., Gershon, P. D., (2003). Structure of intracellular mature vaccinia virus visualized by in situ atomic force microscopy. J.Virol. 77, 6332-6340.
Nermut, M. V., (1973). Freeze-drying and freeze-etching of viruses. In "Freeze-etching Techniques and Applications" (E. L. Benedetti, P. Favard,  Eds.,)  pp. 135-150. Societe Francaise de Microscopie Electronique, Paris.
Westwood, J. C., Harris, W. J., Zwartouw, H. T., Titmuss, D. H., Appleyard, G., (1964). Studies on the structure of vaccinia virus. J.Gen.Microbiol. 34, 67-78.
Wilton, S., Mohandas, A. R., Dales, S., (1995). Organization of the vaccinia envelope and relationship to the structure of intracellular mature virions. Virology 214, 503-511.

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