A comprehensive analysis of the complex structure and critical functions for smallpox vaccines.
The genetic organization includes the L and S regions, housing structural and nonstructural proteins respectively. Capsomeres, comprising proteins E1, E2, and E3, construct the 180-part capsid in a hexagonal arrangement. Derived from the host cell’s plasma membrane, the lipid envelope shields the capsid, featuring adhesion proteins such as glycoprotein E facilitating cellular infection.
Furthermore, adhesion proteins, particularly glycoprotein E, play a crucial role by binding to CD4 and CD8 receptors on host cells, enabling viral entry. For a more immersive understanding, a 3D virtual tour of the vaccinia virion is accessible on the NCBI website, offering an interactive exploration of its various structural components at different scales.